REACHING THE AGE OF ADOLESCENCE: HOW TO EXPLAIN ITS
REACHING THE AGE OF ADOLESCENCE
(reaching the age of adolescence) The WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO) define adolescence as the period of life between 11 and 19 years of age. Since, adolescence period covers the teen period (13 – 19 years) . Girls and Boys reaching the age of adolescence are called teenagers. This is a transition period between childhood and adulthood. The human beings undergo several changes during adolescence. These changes mark the onset of puberty.
VARIOUS CHANGES DURING ADOLESCENCE ON THE BASIS OF REACHING THE AGE OF ADOLESCENCE
|TYPE OF CHANGES||BOYS||GIRLS|
|HEIGHT||Starts increasing height slowly; by age of 18 they grow faster||Grows rapidly than boys; gradually body becomes proportionate|
|BODY SHAPE||Broad shoulder and wider chest; muscle grow prominently.||Wider pelvic region; developed breasts.|
|VOICE||Larynx becomes bigger and protruding as seen from outside of throat (adam’s apple); voice becomes deep.||Smaller larynx and hardly visible from outside so the voice becomes high pitched and shrilled.|
|SWEAT AND SEBACEOUS GLAND||Sufficient active to cause body odour, pimples, acne||Very much active to cause body odour, pimples and acne.|
|SEX ORGANS||Testes and penis develop completely; sperm production begins.||Ovaries enlarged and eggs begin to mature; ovulation is started.|
|PRIMARY SEXUAL CHARACTERS||External genital organ develops||Ovaries are developed|
|SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERS||Development of beard and mustaches
Increase in weight
Hairs developed under armpit chest and pubic region
Muscles developed and broad shoulder
| Enlargement of breast
Initiation of menstruation cycle
Hairs developed under armpit, chest and pubid region
Widen pelvic region.
High pitched voice
|HORMONAL ACTIVITIES||Testes secrete hormone testosterone helping in development of sexual characters||Ovaries secretes hormone oestrogen helping in development of sexual characters.
Beside these another two hormones are FSH and prolactin secreted from pituitary gland.
EXTRA CARE FOR ADOLESCENT ON REACHING THE AGE OF ADOLESCENCE
NUTRITIONAL NEED FOR ADOLESCENT PEOPLE
Various types of food items which should be included in the diet of adolescents to meet the nutritional need of them. These are very much necessary for the people reaching the age of adolescence.
1)Cereals like wheat and rice which provide carbohydrates for energy e.g. chapatti, dosa, cooked rice etc.
2)Milk, meat, nuts and pulses which provide proteins for growth e.g. dal, paneer, fish etc.
3)Fats and sugars which give energy e.g. butter, ghee, groundnut etc.
4)Fruits and vegetables which are protective food and provide many vitamins and minerals e.g. citrus fruits like oranges (vit – C) carrots (vit – A), iron rich leafy vegetables, meat, jiggery etc.
5)Milk provides healthy bones for proper growth.
PERSONAL HYGIENE NEEDED WHEN REACHING THE AGE OF ADOLESCENCE
All body parts should be cleaned by taking bath regularly
Hand should be washed before and after meals
Defecation should not be done openly .
Girls should take special care of cleanliness during the time of menstruation flow.
PHYSICAL EXERCISE NECESSARY FOR THE PEOPLE REACHING THE AGE OF ADOLESCENCE
1)We should do physical exercise regularly.
2)This things make their body fit and fine.
3)Physical exercise includes brisk walking, running, jogging , swimming , skipping and dancing .
4)It keeps themselves fit and healthy.
PROBLEMS RELATED TO REACHING THE AGE OF ADOLESCENCE
VERY SHORT TYPE QUESTION
Qs1 Name a natural food for infants.
Ans1 Mother’s milk is a natural food for infants.
Qs2 Mention a conspicuous change in boys and girls during puberty occurs.
Ans2 Increase in height is the most conspicuous change during puberty in boys and girls.
ANSWER IN BRIEF IN REACHING THE AGE OF ADOLESCENCE
Qs3 What are the characters which distinguish a boy from girl?
Ans3 Secondary sexual characters distinguish a boy from girl. The boys have hairs on face, harsh voice and matured genital organ; while girls begin their menstrual cycle, developed breast and the hip and high pitched voice. These are the distinguishing changes for the adolescent people.
Qs4 What are the problem caused if a person does not get iodine in his food?
Ans 4 If iodine is deficient in diet, the thyroxine production reduces and goiter is caused.
CONCEPTUAL QUESTION ON REACHING THE AGE OF ADOLESCENCE
Qs5 Some boys and girls have their improportionate body parts during adolescence, why?
Ans5 Sometimes, the boys and girls have improportionate body parts. They look tall but face looks smaller. This is because all body parts do not grow at the same rate e.g. long bones elongate early. But slowly, they all catch up and body becomes balanced.
Qs6 A tadpole is kept in iodine deficient water. How will it affect?
Ans6 A tadpoles growing in iodine deficient water have retarded growth. This is because the growth and development is regulated by thyroxine hormone ; thyroid gland secretes this hormone. As iodine is required for thyroxine production, retarded growth is seen in tadpoles when it grows in iodine deficient water.
HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILL ON REACHING THE AGE OF ADOLESCENCE
Qs7 Rajani is a 13 years old girl, she is having pimples on her face these days about which she becomes worry. Why is she getting pimples during this age, explain.
Ans7 During puberty, there is increase in the activity of sweat and sebaceous glands. This causes increase amount of sweating leading bad body smell (stincy body odour). The excess oil and sweat accumulates in the tiny pores of skin, blocking them so that the bacteria can grow in it. This causes the formation of pimples and acne on the face of girls and boys at this age.
EXPLAIN THE FOLLOWING
Qs8 In human female , each time during maturation and release of egg, the inner wall of uterus thickens. Is that thickening permanent? Give reason.
Ans8 No, in human females, each time during maturation and release of egg, the inner wall of uterus thickens. This thickening of the uterus wall is not permanent. If the sperm fertilizes the egg , it starts to develop and gets embedded in the uterine wall resulting in pregnancy. During time of pregnancy, ovaries do not release at all and after the baby born the uterus discharges the thick lining with the shed of blood. However, if fertilization does not occur, the released egg and the thickened lining are shed off resulting in menstruation.
Qs9 Humans attain sexual maturity during puberty. How does this happen? Explain.
Ans9 At puberty, the male and female sex organs get fully developed. The testis start secreting testosterone and start producing sperm. Similarly, in females, the ovaries get enlarged and secrete estrogen so as to produce mature eggs. Due to these sex hormones, humans attain sexual maturity.
ANSWER IN BRIEF ON REACHING THE AGE OF ADOLESCENCE
Qs10 Height of a person is an multifactorial tract. Write the factors which affect the height of the person
Factors which affects the height of the personare :
1)The height of an individual is more or less similar to that of family members. The height depends on the genes inherited by parents.
2)Height also depends on the food eaten by the person in growing period.
3) Hormones, good health (no-disease) and exercise also contributes to height.