# IMAGE FORMED BY PLANE MIRROR

Light is a form of energy which excites the sensation of light. We see an object because of the light it reflects due to which image formed by plane mirror. A continuous and  great experiment proved that light always  travels in a straight line under an experimental evidence , for example, a  bright source of light like the sun casts distinct shadows ; the beam of torch appears to be in a straight line. Light travels at 299,792,458 ms-1 or 3×10 8 ms-1. It takes 8 minutes for a light wave ( or a photon) to travel form the sum to the earth. We see the moon because it reflects the sunlight and image formed by plane mirror. Light takes 1 second to reach the earth when reflected back by the moon.

## PHENOMENON OF LIGHT IN IMAGE FORMED BY PLANE MIRROR:

#### When a beam of light travelling through a medium, is incident on any other surface, three situations can arise.

• A part of light, on striking the surface, is sent back in the original medium. It is called reflection of light.
• Light part, on striking the surface, gets transmitted through it. It is called refraction of light.
• A part of light, gets absorbed by the medium.

## REELECTION OF LIGHT IN IMAGE FORMED BY PLANE MIRROR:

The phenomenon due to which a beam of light, travelling through a certain medium, on striking some other surface, bounces off in some other direction, this phenomenon us known as reflection of light. Due to this image formed by plane mirror.

In other words, the bouncing back of light when it strikes a smooth or polished surface is called reflection of light. While studying the reflection of light we consider light to be a ray.A ray of light represents the direction of the propagation of light i. e. light travels in the direction of the ray of light. Reflection is of two types:

• Regular reflection: When several rays of a beam of light incident on a smooth, mirror like reflecting surface. In this reflection the rays which are reflected from a body are always parallel. Reflection of light from such a smooth surface is called specular reflection or regular reflection. Image formed by plane mirror is done by regular reflection.
• #### Irregular reflection:

•
• The phenomenon due to which a parallel beam of light, travelling through same medium gets reflected in various possible direction on striking some rough surface is called irregular reflection or diffused reflection. Image formed by plane mirror is not possible in irregular reflection. If the reflecting surface is rough, the surface will reflect the rays in various directions .The reflection which takes places from the ground,walls, trees, suspended particles in air and a variety of other objects which are not very smooth, is irregular reflection where image formed by plane mirror is not possible. This type of reflection helps in spreading light energy over a vast region and also decreases it’s intensity.Thus, it helps the general illumination of places and helps us to see things around us.

### TERMS CONNECTED WITH REFLECTION OF LIGHT IN IMAGE FORMED BY PLANE MIRROR

TERMS DEFINITION DIAGRAM
Incident ray It is a light ray which strikes the reflecting surface. Reflected ray It is a light ray which bounces back into the same medium after reflecting from the reflecting surface. ### Point of incidence

it is a point on the reflecting surface where the incident ray strikes. ### Normal

It is a perpendicular  which we draw at the point of incidence on the reflecting surface. ### Angle of incidence

It is the angle which the incident ray makes with the normal to the reflecting surface at the point of incidence.  We represent this  by the letter <i. ### Angle of reflection

It is the angle which the reflected ray makes with the normal to the reflecting surface at the  point of incidence.  we represent this  by the letter <r. ### Glance angle of incidence

The angle which the incident ray makes with the mirror  terms as glance angle of incidence. <MOA is that angle. ### Glance angle of reflection

The angle which the reflected ray makes with the mirror  terms as glance angle of reflection. <BOM is that angle. ### LAWS OF REFLECTION IN IMAGE FORMED BY PLANE:

• The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal lie in the same plane , at the point of incidence.
• The angle of incidence is always equal to the angle of reflection. Let’s consider a light ray  which is travelling in air and incident at an angle on a flat , smooth surface. The incident ray is AO and the reflected ray is BO ; these the rays make angles i and  r respectively, with a line ON drawn perpendicular to the surface at the point of incidence O. Then experiments show that

<i= <r.

#### A PLANE MIRROR:

A plane mirror is a plane reflecting surface. Image formed by a plane mirror  we can study under two different headings

• ### WHEN THE OBJECT IS A POINT OBJECT O is the point object, MM’ is the plane mirror. O is kept at u distance from mirror. Image I  forms at the point from where they appear to originate.The rays appears to originate at I, which is at a distance v behind the mirror, this is the location of the image.

The image formed by plane mirror is always virtual, erect and same size.  We cannot display image on a screen.

### INVERSION AND LATERAL INVERSION OF THE IMAGE

During inversion the top side of object appears as bottom side of image and vice versa. In a way the image turns around horizontal through an angle of 180°.

During lateral inversion the image formed by plane mirror, is the left side of the object appears as right side of image and vice versa. Ina way the image turns through an angle of about 180° vertical axis. ### TO PROVE GEOMETRICALLY THAT IMAGE FORMED BY PLANE MIRROR IS A FAR BEHIND THE MIRROR, AS THE OBJECT IS IN FRONT OF IT —– O is an object  situated in front of a plane mirror MM’. A ray of light which starts from point O perpendicularly,  reflects back along the same path. Another ray which moves along OB, is reflecting along BC, obeying the laws of reflection , such that BN is the normal. OA  and OB

are produced backward in such way that they meet at the point I.  Then I is the image of O. We have to prove that OA = IA.

 Statement Reason

In ΔBAI and ΔBAO

<1 = <2

<3 = <4                                                                                   {Each angle is 90°}

BA = BA                                                                                  Common

So ΔBAI ≡  ΔBAO

By c.p.c.t.

OA = IA

Thus in a plane mirror  the image formed  by plane mirror as far behind the mirror, as the object is in front of it.

Scroll to Top