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SYNTHETIC FIBRES AND PLASTICS: HOW TO KNOW ABOUT IT

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SCIENCE BLOG – SYNTHETIC FIBRES AND PLASTICS 

 INTRODUCTION 

 The synthetic fibers made by man are called man-made. All the Synthetic fibres and plastics are prepared by a number of processes using raw materials of petroleum origin called petrochemical. These are obtained by the chemical processing of petrochemical. Synthetic fibers are stronger than natural fibers. It consists of many small repeating units known as monomers. Many monomers combine together to form a large single unit called a polymer. 

           CHARACTERISTICS OF SYNTHETIC FIBRES AND PLASTICS 

These type of fibres have some important specialities for which people use it widely. Some important characteristics are:

  1. This synthetic fibers are very strong and durable.

2)They absorb very little water so dry up quickly.

3)Wrinkle resistant in nature and do not shrink.

4)Quite light- weight fibres which are also  extremely fine.

5)In the case of costing the  cost of less expensive and readily available.

6)Clothes are made  made from synthetic fibres which are easier to maintain as compared to natural fibres.

                 DISADVANTAGES OF SYNTHETIC FIBRES AND PLASTICS

Inspite of many advantages of synthetic fibers , there are some disadvantages also.  These are given below

1)Synthetic fibers  melt on heating. 

2)If the clothes catches fire , it can be disastrous.  The fabric melts and sticks to the body of the person wearing it  and causes severe burns.

3)The clothes made up of synthetic fibers are not suitable for wearing during hot summer weather as these clothes do not have sufficient pores for the sweat to come out,  evaporate and cool our body .

4)Due to this clothes made up of synthetic fibers make us feel hot and uncomfortable during summer.

      TYPES OF VARIOUS SYNTHETIC FIBERS 

                   

NAME OF FIBRES PROPERTIES USE

Rayon 

 It is chemically identical to cotton but shine like silk 

  This fiber absorbs sweat 

 

It is used

a)In textile industry for making fabrics. 

b)To make carpets. 

c)  To make house hold products such as bed covers, screen, quilt etc.

d)In medical field to make bandages and surgical dressings. 

e)Used in manufacturing of tyre cord. 

Nylon 

 This special type is elastic, lustrous, strong and light 

   Not absorbing water. So, it is easy to wash.

 Special characteristics is  wrinkle resistant and not attacked by fungus, moth etc 

 Very strong in nature. So,  we can store it  for long time.

Nylon is used

a)For making fabrics like neck-tie, socks, shirts and other garments.   To make ropes, car seat belts, fishing nets, bristles for tooth brushes and paint brush. 

b)In making clothes of parachutes and  rock-climbing ropes . 

Polyester 

 Rigid  in nature.

      Wrinkle resistant . So, it is easy to wash and dry.

   Clothes made from this fibers are not attacked by moths and ordinary chemicals and have high abrasion resistance.

 Use of Polyester

a)Saree making

b)Manufacturing screen and dress material 

c)Used in conveyor belts, water host  

d)Two fabrics are blended like

e.g. polyesters / terylene with cotton gives  terrycot  , with wool gives  terrywool.

Acrylic 

Acrylic is light weight, soft and warm with wool-like feel.

  Clothes made from acrylic are relatively cheaper. But it is more durable than those made from natural wool.

This type of fiber cloth resists shrinkage and wrinkles.

 Use of Acrylic

a)In making sweaters, shawls, blankets and carpets. 

b)For making lining for boots and gloves. 

 

 

 

             PLASTICS IN SYNTHETIC FIBRES AND PLASTICS

Plastics have different types of molecular arrangement.   According to the arrangement of unit plastics are classified into two types: 

                           THERMOPLASTICS 

 Type of plastics which get deformed easily on heating and can be bent and molded into different shapes are known as thermoplastics.  Some examples are polythene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC)  We use this  for making insulation of electric wires and cables, containers, comb, toys, raincoat, packaging materials.

                                         THERMO SETTING PLASTICS

The plastics if we mold once, then we cannot make it soft by heating.  We term this type of plastic  as thermo setting plastics. Some examples are Bakelite, melamine.  These plastics are used in making cooking utensils, plate, cups, electric switch, rockets, telephone instruments .  We use melamine  in making  Kitchen ware, and fabric which resist fire.

PLASTICS AS MATERIAL OF CHOICE : 

1)Plastic is non-reactive.

2)It is light, strong, and durable.

3) We can mould plastic into different shapes.

4)This compound is quite cheap and easily available.

5)Plastics cannot conduct electricity and heat. So we can use it comfortably. Therefore, there is no chance of getting shock and hurt.

PROBLEMS RELATED TO SYNTHETIC FIBERS AND PLASTICS 

Qs1: Cotton is a natural polymer. What is its chemical name?

Ans1: Its chemical name is cellulose.

CONCEPTUAL QUESTION 

Qs2: A synthetic fiber which looks like silk is obtained by chemical treatment of wood pulp. It is ,therefore, known as artificial silk. What is its common name? 

Ans2: Its common name is rayon.

Qs3: Terrycot is made by mixing two types of fibers. write the names of the fibers. ( which is the first fully synthetic fiber)

Ans3: Terrycot is made by mixing terylene and cotton.

ONE WORD ANSWER ON SYNTHETIC FIBRES AND PLASTICS

Qs4: Which is synthetic fibre contains the organic group similar to those which give fruits their sweet smell ?

Ans4: Polyester.

Qs5: Name the units of which cellulose polymer is made.

Ans5: Glucose units.

SHORT ANSWER TYPE ON SYNTHETIC FIBRES AND PLASTICS 

Qs6: Name the man-made fibre which  we prepare from natural materials .

Ans6: Rayon is a man-made fibre which we prepare from natural materials.

HIGHER ORDER THINKING ON SYNTHETIC FIBRES AND PLASTICS 

Qs7: On burning wool, why we get the smell of burning hair?

Ans7: Since, wool is  we get  from hair of sheep, it gives smell of burning hair.

Qs8: Write the name of raw materials which we use to make nylon.

Ans8 :  Coal, water and air are the raw materials of nylon.

Qs9:  Write the name of fibre which is the first fully synthetic fibre.

Ans9: Nylon is the first fully synthetic fibre.

SHORT TYPE QUESTION ON SYNTHETIC FIBRES AND PLASTICS

Qs10: The manufacture of which artificial fibres contributes to deforestation?

Ans10:  Making of rayon we obtain  from wood pulp contributes to deforestation.

 BRIEF ANSWER TYPE ON SYNTHETIC FIBRES AND PLASTICS

Qs11: What is polyester? Name a polyester which  we use in very common way.

Ans11: Polyester is the polymer  we obtain from the repeating units of ester. Terylene is the  polyester which we use commonly.

VERY SHORT ANSWER ON SYNTHETIC FIBRES AND PLASTICS

Qs12: Which synthetic polymer  we use  as a substitute for wool for making sweaters and shawls.

Ans12:  We use acrylic as a substitute for wool for making sweaters and shawls.

SHORT TYPE QUESTION ON SYNTHETIC FIBRES AND PLASTICS

Qs13: Which part of the jute plant gives jute fibres?

Ans13:  We get jute fibres from stem of jute plant.

Qs14: Name the plastic which provides coating on the uniforms of fireman to make it fire-resistant.

Ans14: Melamine is a thremosetting plastic which provides  coats on the uniforms of fireman.

Qs15: As a responsible citizen, we should remember the 4R principle. Can you tell what do 4Rs stand is used.

Ans15: 4Rs are Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and Recover.

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