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NUTRITIONAL DISEASES: HOW TO EXPLAIN THE PROBLEMS

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SCIENCE BLOG-NUTRITIONAL DISEASES

INTRODUCTION:

Intestine part of the alimentary canal is prone to many infections which we term as nutritional diseases which may lead to its inflammation. The various infectious agents are bacteria, virus, tapeworms, roundworms, threadworms, hookworm, pin worm etc. Here are  some common nutritional diseases or disorders of the digestive system  :

NAME OF THE DISEASECAUSESYMPTOMPREVENTION/TREATMENT
KWASHIORKOR(protein energy malnutrition)Protein deficient dietUnderweight Stunted growth Poor brain development Loss of appetite Anemia Protruding belly with bulging eye.Infant between 1 o 3 ears are affected ; the must get protein-rich food to overcome this nutritional diseases.
MARASMUS (protein energy malnutrition)Simultaneous deficiency of protein and carbohydrate.Ribs become prominent Thin limbs Dry skin.Child must get high quality of protein like milk. They must get supplementary food at early age.
INDIGESTION or DYSPEPSIAOvereating Eating in short time span Oily food Smoking Drinking alcohol Stomach ulcerPain or burning sensation in upper belly Nausea Bloating Uncontrolled burping Splashing up of stomach acid into oesophagus or mouth. Prevention by avoiding fatty and greasy food. Not to take too much chocolate, ice cream, citrus food Eating slowly, Avoiding smoking to prevent this nutritional diseases.
CONSTIPATIONIrregular bowel movementRetaining of bowel in rectum. Insufficient bowel.Adequate amount of water should be taken. Patient must take roughage as a daily diet.
VOMITINGInflammation of gastric wall. Gastroenteritis. Bowel obstruction. Appendicitis. Food poisoning. Lactose intolerance. Allergic condition.Forceful expulsion of the content of stomach through the mouth.Following drugs can be given to the patients: Anticholinergics. Antihistmines. Dopamine antagonists. Serotonin antagonists.
JAUNDICEInability of the liver to dispose of the bilirubin provided by the circulatory system.Loss of appetite. Vomiting. Yellowness of skin, white part of eye due to excess secretion of bilirubin and deposition of bile pigment.Patient must take complete rest. His diet contains very light food, sugarcane juice, pigeon pea leaf juice etc.
DIARRHOEAPoor sanitation. Consumption of contaminated water. Intense heat. E.coli  bacterial infection.Frequent evacuation of watery stool. Stools contain undigested food.Patient must have ORS frequently. Saline water should be provided if necessary.

                         NUTRITIONAL DISEASES FOR THE DEFICIENCY OF DIETARY NUTRIENT

NUTRIENTDEFICIENCY DISEASEDEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS
VITAMINSFUNCTIONS
Vitamin A (retinol) Anti-Xerophthalmic factorNight blindness (Nyctalopia) Xerophthalmia (Dry eye)KeratomalaciaLess rhodopsin in rod cells of retina, so  no vision in dim light.Thickened, keratinized, opaque and ulcerated cornea.Corneal epithelium becomes keratinized and opaque.
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Antineuritic factorBeri beriLoss of appetite.Inflammation of peripheral nerves.Numbness.Weakness of limb muscles.Paralysis.Cardiac odema .
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)CheilosisCracking of the angles  of mouth causing nutritional diseases.
Vitamin B3 ( Niacin / Nicotinic acid)PellagraSwollen lips.Thick pigmented skin of hands and legs.Irritability causing nutritional diseases.
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)MarasmusConvulsions.Dermatitis.Impairment of antibody synthesis.
Vitamin B7 / Vitamin H (Biotin)DermatitisScaly skin.Muscle pain.Weakness.
Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)Pernicious anemiaLarge, immature and nucleated RBC . RBCs are devoid of haemoglobin.
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)ScurvyBleeding gums.Loose teeth.Anemia.Painful and swollen joints.Delayed healing of wounds.
Vitamin D (Calciferol)Rickets in childrenOsteomalacia in adultsWeak, soft, and thin bones due to poor deposition of Ca and P.Long bones become deformed or bent, painful swelling on the wrist, elbow and knee joint. Weak bones of the vertebral column. Pelvis gets bent and deformed by body weight.
Vitamin E (Tocopherol)AnemiaRBC devoid of hemoglobin
Vitamin K (Phylloquinone) Anti- hemorrhagic factorBleeding diseaseDelayed and faulty blood clotting causing excessive bleeding.
Vitamin M Folic acid or FolacinMacrocytic anemia or megaloblastic anemiaspruePresence of large, immature or malformed RBCs in the blood.Impairment of antibody synthesis.Stunted growth.Ulceration of mouth.Inflammation of bowel.Indigestion.Diarrhea.
MINERALS
Iron (Fe)Microcytic anemiaLow hemoglobin condition.Weakness.Tiredness.Reduced learning ability increased risk of infection. Death during childbirth.
Iodine (I)Goitre(a)Swelling of the thyroid gland. (b)Reduced mental function. (c)Increased risk of baby birth. (d) Infant death.
Flourine (Fl) Dental cariesTooth decay Tooth cavity.

                                           DISORDERS CAUSED DUE TO OVERNUTRITION

NAME OF DISORDERSEXCESS NUTRIENTSYMPTOMS
OBESITYExcessive intake of food caloriesHigh BP Proneness to diabetes Cardiac disorder
HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIASaturated fatsRise in BP Cardiac disorder
HYPERVITAMINOSIS (A)Vitamin AAnorexia Painful swelling over long bones Sparsity of hair Pruritic rash.
HYPERVITAMINOSIS (D)Vitamin DDeposition of calcium in soft tissue.
HYPERVITAMINOSIS (E)Vitamin KGastrointestinal disturbances Anemia.
HYPERVITAMINOSIS (C)Vitamin CStone formation in urinary tract.
FLOUROSISFluorineWeak skeletal muscle Defective teeth Loss of shiny appearance or chalk white patches on teeth called MOTTLED ENAMEL.
HYPERCALCEMIACalciumDepressed nervous system Decreases systole of heart Causes constipation Lack of appetite Kidney stone.

CONCEPTUAL QUESTIONS ON NUTRITIONAL DISEASES:

Qs1: What are essential amino acids?

Ans1: The amino acids which are obtained from outside and our body is unable to synthesize.

Qs2: Which enzyme is called universal enzyme?

Ans2:  Trypsin is known as a universal enzyme.

Qs3: What are crypts of Lieberkuhn?

Ans3: Crypts of Lieberkuhn are minute pocket-like pits present in the walls of the intestine.

Qs4: What is deglutination ?

Ans4: Deglutination is the process of swallowing of food.

Qs5: Name the disorder caused by lack of Castle’s intrinsic gastric factor.

Ans5: Pernicious Anemia is occurred.

ANSWER THE FOLLOWING

Qs6: What is the function of bile salt?

Ans6:  Sodium bicarbonate neutralizes the Hydrochloric acid of chyme while Sodium glycholate and Sodium tetrachlorate emulsify the fats.

Qs7:  Which lipid can cause heart ailment?

Ans7: Cholesterol can cause heart ailment followed by severe nutritional diseases.

Qs8: What is GIP?

Ans8: GIP stands for Gastric Inhibitory Peptide or Enterogastrone hormone secreted by duodenal epithelium.

Qs9: What is chylomicrons ?

Ans9:  From the micelles  fatty acids, glycerides, sterols and fat soluble vitamins are absorbed into the intestinal cells by diffusion where they are resynthesized in the E.R. and are converted into very small fat molecules called Chylomicrons.

Qs10: What is heartburn in nutritional diseases?

Ans10: Sometimes acidic chyme is squeezed from stomach into the esophagus. This burns the unprotected cells and causes heart burns or pyrosis. It gives burning sensation in the chest.

Qs11: What is oedema in nutritional diseases?

Ans11: Oedema means fluid accumulation which is a characteristic symptom of children suffering from kwashiorkor.     

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