NUTRITIONAL DISEASES: HOW TO EXPLAIN THE PROBLEMS
SCIENCE BLOG-NUTRITIONAL DISEASES
Intestine part of the alimentary canal is prone to many infections which we term as nutritional diseases which may lead to its inflammation. The various infectious agents causing nutritional disorders are bacteria, virus, tapeworms, roundworms, threadworms, hookworm, pin worm etc. Here are some common nutritional diseases or disorders of the digestive system :
|NAME OF THE DISEASE||CAUSE||SYMPTOM||PREVENTION/TREATMENT|
|KWASHIORKOR(protein energy malnutrition)||Protein deficient diet||Underweight Stunted growth Poor brain development Loss of appetite Anemia Protruding belly with bulging eye.||Infant between 1 o 3 ears are affected ; the must get protein-rich food to overcome this nutritional diseases.|
|MARASMUS (protein energy malnutrition)||Simultaneous deficiency of protein and carbohydrate.||Ribs become prominent Thin limbs Dry skin.||Child must get high quality of protein like milk. They must get supplementary food at early age.|
|INDIGESTION or DYSPEPSIA IN NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS||Overeating Eating in short time span Oily food Smoking Drinking alcohol Stomach ulcer||Pain or burning sensation in upper belly Nausea Bloating Uncontrolled burping Splashing up of stomach acid into oesophagus or mouth.||Prevention by avoiding fatty and greasy food. Not to take too much chocolate, ice cream, citrus food Eating slowly, Avoiding smoking to prevent this nutritional diseases.|
|CONSTIPATION||Irregular bowel movement||Retaining of bowel in rectum. Insufficient bowel.||Adequate amount of water should be taken. Patient must take roughage as a daily diet to prevent nutritional disorders.|
|VOMITING||Inflammation of gastric wall. Gastroenteritis. Bowel obstruction. Appendicitis. Food poisoning. Lactose intolerance. Allergic condition.||Forceful expulsion of the content of stomach through the mouth.||Following drugs can be given to the patients: Anticholinergics. Antihistmines. Dopamine antagonists. Serotonin antagonists.|
|JAUNDICE||Inability of the liver to dispose of the bilirubin provided by the circulatory system.||Loss of appetite. Vomiting. Yellowness of skin, white part of eye due to excess secretion of bilirubin and deposition of bile pigment.||Patient must take complete rest. His diet contains very light food, sugarcane juice, pigeon pea leaf juice etc.|
|DIARRHOEA||Poor sanitation. Consumption of contaminated water. Intense heat. E.coli bacterial infection.||Frequent evacuation of watery stool. Stools contain undigested food.||Patient must have ORS frequently. Saline water should be provided if necessary.|
NUTRITIONAL DISEASES FOR THE DEFICIENCY OF DIETARY NUTRIENT
|NUTRIENT||DEFICIENCY DISEASE||DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS|
|Vitamin A (retinol) Anti-Xerophthalmic factor||Night blindness (Nyctalopia) Xerophthalmia (Dry eye)Keratomalacia||Less rhodopsin in rod cells of retina, so no vision in dim light.Thickened, keratinized, opaque and ulcerated cornea.Corneal epithelium becomes keratinized and opaque.|
|Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Antineuritic factor||Beri beri||Loss of appetite.Inflammation of peripheral nerves.Numbness.Weakness of limb muscles.Paralysis.Cardiac odema .|
|Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)||Cheilosis||Cracking of the angles of mouth causing nutritional diseases.|
|Vitamin B3 ( Niacin / Nicotinic acid)||Pellagra||Swollen lips.Thick pigmented skin of hands and legs.Irritability causing nutritional diseases.|
|Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)||Marasmus||Convulsions.Dermatitis.Impairment of antibody synthesis.|
|Vitamin B7 / Vitamin H (Biotin)||Dermatitis||Scaly skin.Muscle pain.Weakness.|
|Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)||Pernicious anemia||Large, immature and nucleated RBC . RBCs are devoid of haemoglobin.|
|Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)||Scurvy||Bleeding gums.Loose teeth.Anemia.Painful and swollen joints.Delayed healing of wounds.|
|Vitamin D (Calciferol)||Rickets in childrenOsteomalacia in adults||Weak, soft, and thin bones due to poor deposition of Ca and P.Long bones become deformed or bent, painful swelling on the wrist, elbow and knee joint. Weak bones of the vertebral column. Pelvis gets bent and deformed by body weight.|
|Vitamin E (Tocopherol)||Anemia||RBC devoid of hemoglobin|
|Vitamin K (Phylloquinone) Anti- hemorrhagic factor||Bleeding disease||Delayed and faulty blood clotting causing excessive bleeding.|
|Vitamin M Folic acid or Folacin||Macrocytic anemia or megaloblastic anemiasprue||Presence of large, immature or malformed RBCs in the blood.Impairment of antibody synthesis.Stunted growth.Ulceration of mouth.Inflammation of bowel.Indigestion.Diarrhea.|
|Iron (Fe)||Microcytic anemia||Low hemoglobin condition.Weakness.Tiredness.Reduced learning ability increased risk of infection. Death during childbirth.|
|Iodine (I)||Goitre||(a)Swelling of the thyroid gland. (b)Reduced mental function. (c)Increased risk of baby birth. (d) Infant death.|
|Flourine (Fl)||Dental caries||Tooth decay Tooth cavity.|
DISORDERS CAUSED DUE TO OVERNUTRITION IN NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS
|NAME OF DISORDERS||EXCESS NUTRIENT||SYMPTOMS|
|OBESITY||Excessive intake of food calories||High BP Proneness to diabetes Cardiac disorder|
|HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA||Saturated fats||Rise in BP Cardiac disorder|
|HYPERVITAMINOSIS (A)||Vitamin A||Anorexia Painful swelling over long bones Sparsity of hair Pruritic rash.|
|HYPERVITAMINOSIS (D)||Vitamin D||Deposition of calcium in soft tissue.|
|HYPERVITAMINOSIS (E)||Vitamin K||Gastrointestinal disturbances Anemia.|
|HYPERVITAMINOSIS (C)||Vitamin C||Stone formation in urinary tract.|
|FLOUROSIS||Fluorine||Weak skeletal muscle Defective teeth Loss of shiny appearance or chalk white patches on teeth called MOTTLED ENAMEL.|
|HYPERCALCEMIA||Calcium||Depressed nervous system Decreases systole of heart Causes constipation Lack of appetite Kidney stone.|
CONCEPTUAL QUESTIONS ON NUTRITIONAL DISEASES:
Qs1: What are essential amino acids?
Ans1: The amino acids which are obtained from outside and our body is unable to synthesize.
Qs2: Which enzyme is called universal enzyme?
Ans2: Trypsin is known as a universal enzyme.
Qs3: What are crypts of Lieberkuhn?
Ans3: Crypts of Lieberkuhn are minute pocket-like pits present in the walls of the intestine.
Qs4: What is deglutination ?
Ans4: Deglutination is the process of swallowing of food.
Qs5: Name the disorder caused by lack of Castle’s intrinsic gastric factor.
Ans5: Pernicious Anemia is occurred as nutritional disorders.
ANSWER THE FOLLOWING
Qs6: What is the function of bile salt?
Ans6: Sodium bicarbonate neutralizes the Hydrochloric acid of chyme while Sodium glycholate and Sodium tetrachlorate emulsify the fats.
Qs7: Which lipid can cause heart ailment?
Ans7: Cholesterol can cause heart ailment followed by severe nutritional diseases.
Qs8: What is GIP?
Ans8: GIP stands for Gastric Inhibitory Peptide or Enterogastrone hormone secreted by duodenal epithelium.
Qs9: What is chylomicrons ?
Ans9: From the micelles fatty acids, glycerides, sterols and fat soluble vitamins are absorbed into the intestinal cells by diffusion where they are resynthesized in the E.R. and are converted into very small fat molecules called Chylomicrons.
Qs10: What is heartburn in nutritional diseases?
Ans10: Sometimes acidic chyme is squeezed from stomach into the esophagus. This burns the unprotected cells and causes heart burns or pyrosis. It gives burning sensation in the chest.
Qs11: What is oedema in nutritional diseases?
Ans11: Oedema means fluid accumulation which is a characteristic symptom of children suffering from kwashiorkor.