The phenomenon of human heart beating includes following events: systole, diastole, pulse rate and cardiac cycle .  Here are some common terms related to human heart beating:

1)Systole of normal human heart rate: It refers to the contraction of heart chambers 

2)Diastole of normal human heart rate : It refers to the relaxation of heart chambers (human heart beatings close)

3)Joint diastole normal human heart rate : It refers to the relaxed state of both atria and ventricles 

4)Human heart beating rate: It refers to the numbers of times the heart beats per minute. It is equivalent to the number of cardiac cycle per minute.

5)Initial 0.15 second of normal human heart rate : Contraction of atria and relaxation of ventricles.

6)Artial systole and ventricular diastole of normal human heart rate : Atrio ventricular valves open and semilunar valves are closed.

7)Next 0.25 seconds of normal human heart rate : Relaxation of atria and contraction of ventricles

8)Artial diastole and ventricular systole of normal human heart rate: Atrio-ventricular valves close —- first human heart beating LUBB; first all valves closed initially during human heart beating then ventricles contract. Semilunar valves closed initially but open later during human heart beating

9)Next 0.4 seconds of human heart rate: Atria relax as well as ventricles also relax during human heart beating.

10)Joint diastole of human heart rate: Semilunar valves close —— second human heart beating DUB. Initially all the valves close later atrioventricular valves open.

Beating of  heart occurs continuously without pause throughout the life. Atria and ventricles show rhythmic contraction and relaxation in a specific manner during one heart beat which we term as the cardiac cycle.

On average, the normal human heart rate is 72 times /minute.

During a human heart beating both atria contract simultaneously and blood flows into the ventricles and then both ventricles contract together forcing the blood into the pulmonary artery and aorta.


 In the human heart, there is a specialized area of cardiac muscle fibres called the sinoatrial node,  or SA node in the right atrium. SA node terms as the pacemaker as it generates each wave of cardiac impulse. Each human heart beating or cardiac impulse originates from here and then spreads as a wave of contraction in the heart  (normal human heart rate). The electric changes sweep across the heart chambers in a specific sequence of human heart beating.  These electric changes we can record by an instrument terms electrocardiograph. A graphical record of these changes during human heart beating is called an electrocardiogram or ECG.


A defect in the heart  identified by observing the changes in the pattern of ECG.  An ECG is used by doctors to determine the location and extent of damage caused by the heart attack and later helps to assess the extent of recovery


When the sinoatrial node (SA node) – the pacemaker of the heart becomes damaged (a problem in human heart beating)  or defective, the cardiac impulses do not generate at regular intervals (human heart beating). There is an irregularity in the beating of the heart.  By grafting an artificial pacemaker this problem can be overcome. Artificial pacemaker is an electronic device that is grafted surgically in the chest of the patient.  


It is a wave of distension followed by the constriction, felt in the arteries as a result of ventricular systole and diastole (normal pulse rate of human).

Normal pulse rate of human per minute is equal to heart beating rate /minute.


  • QS 1 : Name the blood vessel which supplies blood to the liver(normal pulse rate of human
  • Ans 1 : hepatic artery .
  • Qs Name the valve present in between the chambers of the right side of the human heart (normal pulse rate of human)
  • Ans2 Tricuspid valve present in between the chambers of the right side of the human heart (normal pulse rate of human)
  • Qs3 (normal pulse rate of human) what is the function of RBC? (normal pulse rate of human)
  • Ans3 (normal pulse rate of human ) Main function of RBC is to transport oxygen and carbon-di- oxide. (normal pulse rate of human)
  • Qs4 (normal pulse rate of human) what is the function of platelet?( normal pulse rate of human)

  • Ans4 (normal pulse rate of human)Blood platelets involve in blood clotting while injury  is the function of platelets.(normal pulse rate of human).
  • Qs5 (normal pulse rate of human) Discuss how the WBCs provide defence to the body? (normal pulse rate of human)
  • Ans5 (normal pulse rate of human) The main function of WBCs is to provide defence by: engulfing bacteria by phagocytosis( normal pulse rate of human); destroying damaged cells (normal pulse rate of human); forming antibodies (normal pulse rate of human). In this way WBCs provide a huge protection to the body (normal pulse rate of human)
  • Qs6 (normal pulse rate of human) name the soluble protein which we find in blood platelet (normal pulse rate of human)
  • Ans6 (normal pulse rate of human) Fibrinogen (normal pulse rate of human)
  • Qs7 (normal pulse rate of human) Name the phase of the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles relax (normal pulse rate of human

  • Ans7 (normal pulse rate of human) Ventricular diastole (normal pulse rate of human)
  • Qs8 (normal pulse rate of human) why does the blood flow in the arteries flowing in spurts (normal pulse rate of human)
  • Ans8 (normal pulse rate of human) In arteries blood pressure is high, blood flows rapidly because lumen in narrow and the arteries do not have valves , so blood flows in spurts. (normal pulse rate of human)
  • Qs9 (normal pulse rate of human) What is Diapedesis? (normal pulse rate of human)
  • Ans9 (normal pulse rate of human) The leucocytes squeeze out through the walls of blood capillaries into the tissues. This phenomenon is called diapedesis. (normal pulse rate of human)
  • Qs10 (normal pulse rate of human) Fill in the blanks: LUBB : Atrioventricular valves :: DUB :  ____ ? (normal pulse rate of human)

  • Ans10 (normal pulse rate of human) Semilunar valve (normal pulse rate of human)
  • Qs11 (normal pulse rate of human) Name two major circulations of blood in the human body (normal pulse rate of human)
  • Ans 11 (normal pulse rate of human) Pulmonary circulation and Systemic circulation (normal pulse rate of human)
  • Qs12 (normal pulse rate of human) From where to where do the following blood vessels carry blood:- pulmonary artery, renal artery, hepatic vein, hepatic portal vein? (normal pulse rate of human)

  • Ans12 (normal pulse rate of human) pulmonary artery from right ventricle to lungs; renal artery from aorta to kidney; hepatic vein from liver to posterior vena cava and hepatic portal vein from stomach and intestine to liver (normal pulse rate of human)

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