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FIBER AND FABRIC : HOW TO UNDERSTAND VARIOUS FIBERS

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FIBER AND FABRIC

INTRODUCTION

We make clothes by very fine thread like thread, which we term as fiber. As we know the names of various fibers like wool, silk, cotton, flax, jute, polyester, nylon, rayon etc.  Fiber laborers spin the fibers into long continuous thread. Then this thread is woven in a loom to make fiber and fabric. There are two types of fibers : man made and natural fibers. Man-made fibers are synthetic fibers.  Natural  fibers we obtain from natural source like plant and animals.

Here I will discuss about natural fiber and fabric . Here we can get explanation of processing of fiber and fabric.

WOOL IN FIBER AND FABRIC

The animals like sheep, goat, yak, camel, Llama, Alpaca yield wool like fiber. These animals bear a thick coat of fur on body. This layer traps air in between the space of wool fibers. Air is a bad conductor of heat. So, air traps heat and keeps the body warm. We collect the wool from these animals in summer season to get fiber and fabric.

PROCESSING OF WOOL FIBER AND FABRIC

There are some steps to process wool  to get proper fiber and fabric so that we can knit  sweaters or weaving shawls.

STEP 1

Removal of hair

Workers remove hair of sheep by shaving machine. The process we know shearing in fiber and fabric. This process does not hurt the animals because the outermost skin layer is dead. The fleece or hair of sheep provides woolen fibers.

STEP 2

Cleaning of fibers in fiber and fabric

The cut hair of sheep contains dust, dirt, dried sweat and grease. We may wash the sheared hair by detergent and lots of water. This process we term as scouring. Present days we can clean the fleece by using machine.

STEP 3

Separation of fibers in fiber and fabric

Workers separate the fleece of animals according to the quality whether the fibers are fine, coarse, long, short etc in the factory. This process we term sorting in fiber and fabric. Same quality wool  are arranged by sorting equal quality of fiber.

STEP 4

Dying

The color of natural fleece of animals may be brown, black or white. We may dye white fibers into various colors.

STEP 5

Straightening of fiber into yarn in fiber and fabric

Workers use to straight, combing and rolling  into yarn. We spin the woolen fibers into thick yarn . People can knit the sweater and shawl.

SILK IN FIBER AND FABRIC

We obtain silk from silk moth. Protein makes the fiber. The strongest natural fiber is silk. Silk farming terms as sericulture. Rearing of silkworms for obtaining silk  is sericulture in fiber and fabric. India produces a lot of silk on commercial silk.

PRODUCTION OF SILK

silk worm life cycle
LIFE CYCLE OF SILK MOTH

Workers do not allow development of cocoon inside  the cocoon into adult silk moth. Laborers kill the developing silkworms by soaking them in hot water. We obtain silk by spinning the fibers . The process of taking out fibers from the cocoon for use as silk  we term as reeling of silk. Spun fibers are formed into silk threads. Weavers weave the silk threads into silk cloth.

QUESTION AND ANSWER ON FIBER AND FABRIC

Qs1: What are the different types of fibers forming in sheep.

Ans1: Two types of fibers found in hair of sheep are

  1. The  outer hair which are coarse and rough
  2. Those under hair , fine and soft closure to skin.

Qs2: How we can obtain silk thread from cocoon?

Ans2: A pile of cocoon is used for obtaining silk fiber. Workers keep the under the sun, boiled water or exposed to steam. They separate out silk fibers. If we take out  threads from the cocoon for use of silk then we term it as reeling of silk.

Qs3: State the steps of production of silk in proper sequence in fiber and fabric .

Ans3: Proper sequence of silk production are

  1. Female silk moths lay eggs.
  2. Warm eggs are kept in suitable temperature for production of larvae from eggs.
  3.  With  a lots of mulberry leaves, those hatched out caterpillars  are grown in a trays.
  4.  Those caterpillars stop eating after 25 to 30 days
  5. Caterpillars start spinning.
  6. Workers keep the matured cocoon under the sun and boiled in water.
  7. Fibers are taken out from the cocoon.

CONCEPTUAL  QUESTION ON FIBER AND FABRIC 

Qs4: Nila went to the market to buy saris for her mother. She took out thread from the edge of the two saris shown by the shopkeeper and burnt them.  Burning of one thread she gets  the smell of burning hair, and from another thread she gets  smell of burning paper. Which thread is from a pure cotton saris ? Which one from a pure silk saris ? Give reason for this.

Ans4: In case of first sari, burning thread  with smell of burning hair is from pure silk.  In case of second sari, which gives smell of burning paper is not original silk. Second sari may be of artificial silk  as it is from man-made source. Second sari is the original silk as it gives smell of protein.

Qs5: “ Unity is strength”, explain it in the making of fiber and fabric.

Ans5: Fibers and fabric have a major role in everyday application. A fiber is a hair-like strand . This fiber can be spun into yarn and made into fabric. A single fiber is very weak and it is easier to break. But if it is woven into fabric, then it is difficult to tear. Fabric needs more energy to tear apart as compared to a single fiber. 

HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILL

Qs6: Sorter’s disease is an occupational hazard. Justify.

Qs6: Wool industry is an important source of livelihood for a huge number of people. The people doing job in  sorting industry to take out the fleece of sheep are suffering from this disease. Sorters do very risky job because sometime they may be infected by anthrax. During this disease patient may have deadly blood .

 Qs7: Differentiate between natural silk and artificial silk.

Ans7: Difference  between natural silk and artificial silk

CHARACTERNATURAL SILKARTIFICIAL SILK
OBTAINED FROMCocoons of silkwormHydrocarbon
SOURCEProteinCellulose
BURNING SMELLBurning  of hairBurning of paper
COMFORTMore comfortLess comfort

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