Living organism requires food for their growth and survival.  By photosynthesis, plants can make their food and animals intake food from various plants. Authority takes required steps to distribute food to the large number of population evenly by producing crops regularly and management. Till 10,000 BC people were nomads. They stayed in group and travelled various places for food and the place to hide.  At the very beginning, those people intake raw food, then started hunting. Then ate raw flesh also. Later, those nomads learned cultivation of land to produce various cereal and other crops. 

 Here I will discuss about harvesting, storage and food for animal


The process of cutting and gathering mature and ripened crop is called Harvesting. When crops got matured, they usually turn yellow or golden or brown. In this process, farmers pull the crops out and try to cut the crops at the beginning of plants. Farmers do harvesting by their own hand by means of sickle or with the help of harvester machine. 


The process by which the grain seeds are separated from the chaff is called threshing.  There is a machine called combine which helps farmer a lot. It helps farmers to threshing grains as well as winnow. Sometimes, stubs of crops plants left in the field after harvesting are burnt by the farmers. This we must avoid because it causes air pollution and may cause accidental fire to the harvested crop and damage it. The parts inside the field help to increase fertility of soil. SEPARATION OF GRAINS 

After threshing, winnowing is done which helps to separate grains from chaff. In this process, the mixture of grain, hay and chaff is dropped from a height in blowing wind.  The seeds falls on the ground as these are heavy in weight but the outer chaff and hay parts of seeds are blown by the wind as these are light in weight. A separate collection of grains are kept together and  properly stored in jute bag properly.


silos are the storage of grains
silos are big granaries to store large amount of grains

The Faremers use to dry the harvested and cleaned grains  to evaporate moisture in them before storage. Since they have to keep  the grains for longer time, these should be safe from moisture insects ,rats and microorganisms. Insecticides and rodenticides are sprayed also to protect it from insects and rats. By the means of gunny bag or bin made up of metal, farmers store their crops. Government authority manages to store grains in various granaries and silos of different places at large scale. 

Storage of grains
crop protection is very important.

It helps to protect the grains from pests and insects.


To protect the grains from microorganisms farmers use fried neem leaves . Cultivators sell the food grains to the  Government Agencies like FOOD CORPORATION OF INDIA (FCI)and stored in its godown. This agency can provide food evenly and regularly to the whole country in every season.  Farmers fill the Foodgrains in gunny bags. Then they transport and distribute these crops at a various places with the help of Govt. or non-Govt agencies.


After three or four months of hard work, there comes the day of harvest. The sight of golden fields of standing crops, laden with grain fills the hearts of farmers with joy and a sense of well being. The period is of great joy and happiness.  People celebrate it with great zeal. Special harvesting festivals associated with this season are Bihu, Nabanna, Baishakhi etc.FOOD FROM ANIMALS.

Besides plants, some animals also provide us food. The food  which we get from  the animals are protein rich. These proteins are not present in plants. Animal food also contains good amount of fats but less amount of carbohydrates. Animals are two  major types on the basis of food obtained from them. 


Milk yielding or milch animals

Milk Yielding animal
cow is a milk yeilding animal with largee variety

Animals we term them also as dairy animals. Cow, Buffalo, Goats are the examples of milk yielding animals.

Egg and meat yielding animals 

Egg and meat yielding animal
chicken is a white meat having less cholesterol


Egg and meat yielding aquatic animal
duck meat is a delicious cuisine with white meat

Goat, Sheep, Fish and poultry like Hen, Duck etc are egg and meat yielding animals

Honey yielding animals 

Honey yielding animal

rearing of honey bee for honey and wax is called apiculture

Honey bee is one and only honey producing animals.

Rearing and breeding of animals with high nutritive food, and proper care and shelter is Animal Husbandry.

Crop harvesting and protection
sheep is wool yeilding animal which is also used for meat yeilding animal

Pisciculture is the rearing of fish in large scale in coastal areas and in small scale in river and lakes for food.

Aquatic animal
fish is aquatic animal rich in protein and vitamin

fish is aquatic animal rich in protein and vitamin[/caption]

Crop protection
It is an aquatic animal

fish is the protein food rich in vitamin A and D[/caption]

Fishes are important sources of animal food in coastal areas. Flesh of fish provides high amount of protein, vitamin A and D.  Vitamin D is present in Cod fish liver oil.



Qs1: Name the problem to overcome this we use modern method of irrigation.

Ans1: To overcome wastage of water we use modern method of irrigation. Traditional method causes large amount of wastage of water.

Qs2: What is the use of water pumps in agriculture? 

Ans2:  Farmers use water pumps in lifting water.

Qs3: Is there any advantage of using a cultivator?

Ans3: Yes, cultivator has an advantage. We use it to save the time as well as labour charge. It can dig a considerable large area in very less time.

Qs4: Which Government Agency involves in collecting food grains from farmers and storing them.

Ans4: Food Corporation Of India (FCI) is the Government Agency which procure food grains from farmers.


Qs5: We consider fishes as good for health. Give reason.

Ans5: Fishes are good for health because they are highly nutritious and rich in vitamin A and vitamin D. They are an important source of animal food in coastal areas. 

Qs6 :What do you know about irrigation quantity and time of watering to rice and cotton? Is it similar in both the case?

 Ans6: No, the time and frequency of irrigation is not same for rice and cotton. In rice the irrigation is more in quantity than that of cotton.

Qs7: Name the function by which earthworms and microorganisms can grow profusely in the crop field. 

Ans7: Ploughing of the soil during soil preparation creates aeration and loosen the soil which promotes earthworms and microbes to grow and release nutrients in soil.

Qs8: Farmers use dried neem leaves to store his grains in a metallic container. Give reason.

Ans8: Dry neem leaves protect the stored food grains from pests such as insects and microorganisms. This is the reason why farmers use these leaves.


Qs9: What is the procedure to provide large amount of food to the increasing number of population?

Ans9: Food has to be produced on a large scale. Authority takes required steps to distribute food to the large number of population evenly by producing crops regularly and proper management. 

 Qs10:  Is there any harmful effect to the farmers who use to spray weedicids to the crops regularly?

Ans10: Weedicides are the chemicals that farmers use to control the growth of weeds. These plants are unwanted plants in the field. These weedicides may affect the health of farmers. So, the farmers should take precautionary measures like gloves, mask etc to cover nose, mouth and hands. 

Qs11: Is there any advantage to sow the seeds at appropriate distance?

Ans11: Yes, the advantage of sowing seeds at appropriate distance is that it prevents overcrowding of plants. In this way there is evenly distribution of nutrient  in the soil.

Qs12: What is organic food?

Ans12: the crops  where farmers use organic substances like manures etc and prohibit the use of harmful chemical substances like fertilizers, pesticides, weedicides etc are organic food.


Qs13: The leveling of ploughed field is beneficial. Give reasons to support your answer.

Ans13: The leveling of ploughed field is beneficial because of the following reasons:

  • This process prevents the top fertile layer of soil which strong wind or water can flow away.
  • It helps in uniform distribution of water in the fields during irrigation.
  • Leveling also prevents loss of moisture from the ploughed soli.

Qs14: State two advantages of using chemical fertilizers over manures. Mention the after effect of excess use of fertilizer in the soil. 

Ans14: Advantages of using chemical fertilizers over manures are 

  • Fertilizers are nutrient specific and provide specific nutrient to the soil in desired quantity.
  • These are readily soluble in water. So, plants can easily absorb the fertilizers.

If the farmers use in excess, it causes tremendous changes in the chemical nature of soil and makes it less fertile.

Qs15: Mention the precaution we should take so that plants do not dry and die in summer season. 

Ans15: Water is necessary for all physiological functions and growth of all living organisms including plants. In summer, due to high temperature, water evaporates from the soli as well as from plant surfaces thus making it deficient. This water deficiency we can overcome by adequately supplying water to plants and taking care of them during the summer season.

Select the statement which is false for organic manure? 

            (i)It has a balance of all plant nutrients.

           (ii)It enhances water holding capacity of soil.

           (iii)It provides humus to soil.

           (iv)It improves texture of soil.

  • Watering the crops is called




(iv) irrigation


  • By which process the farmers uses to separate the grains from the chaff

(i) sieving

(ii) winnowing

(iii) threshing

(iv)Hand picking.

  • Weeds are the 
  • (i)Main crop plants.
  • (ii)Insects and pests.
  • (iii)Unwanted plants growing along the crops.
  • (iv)Chemical substances.
  • Select the group of crop belonging to kharif crops?
  • (i)Rice, wheat, cotton.
  • (ii)Maize, soybean, mustard.
  • (iii)Rice, mustard, cotton.
  • (iv)Rice, maize, soybean.
  • In which irrigation system water is released  drop by drop near the roots of plants, Pulley system.
  • Drip system.
  • Sprinkler system.
  • Lever system.
  • Planting of seeds is called 
  • (i) cultivation
  • (ii)irrigation
  • (iii)harvesting
  • (iv) sowing
  • Seed drill is used to
  • Sow the seeds.
  • Remove the weeds.
  • Remove the pest.
  • Mix manure in the soil.
  • Name the tool which a farmer uses to remove weeds from the field? 
  • (i)hoe
  • (ii) plough
  • (iii) axe
  • (iv)cultivator
  • By which process soil can be loosened and turned?
  • Irrigation and manuring.
  • Digging and winnowing.
  • Tiling and ploughing.
  • Harvesting and storage.


  • (i) It has a balance of all plant nutrients. 
  • (iv) Irrigation.
  • (iii) Threshing
  • (iii) Unwanted plants growing along the crops.
  • (iv) Rice, maize, soybean.
  • (ii) Drip system.
  • (iv) Sowing.
  • (i) Sow the seeds.
  • (i) hoe.
  • (iii) Tiling and ploughing.




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