AIR AND WATER POLLUTION

                                                    

INTRODUCTION: (air and water pollution) Human activities directly affect the environment. Air and water are the two most important natural resources, whose pollution is frequently in the news(air and water pollution). The presence of unusually high concentration of harmful(air and water pollution)  or poisonous substances referred to as pollutant in the environment ( air and water pollutant) is called pollution.(AIR AND WATER POLLUTION)

 

DEFINITION OF POLLUTANT (air and water pollution): A pollutant is defined as a physical, chemical or biological substance (air and water pollution) unintentionally released into the environment which is harmful to living organisms and non-living things (air and water pollution).

TYPES OF AIR POLUTANTS (air and water pollution): Air pollutants are of two types

  • Gaseous pollutant:(air and water pollution) Pollutants in gaseous state like SO2, CO2, NO2, CO etc.(air and water pollution)
  • Particulate air pollutant:(air and water pollution) Pollutants in the form of tiny solidor liquid particles. Remain suspended in air ,(air and water pollution) also called SUSPENDED PARTICULATE MATTER (SPM) like smoke dust, fly ash, smog etc (air and water pollution).

SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION: (air and water pollution)

  • Natural sources: (air and water pollution)Dust storms, forest fire, volcanoes, pollen grains and dry shaded leaves (air and water  pollution)
  • Man-made sources /Anthropogenic sources: (air and water pollution)It includes human activities that add pollutants to the atmosphere.(air and water pollution) It includes fossil fuel, exhaust gases emitted by vehicles, industries, nuclear power plants etc. (air and water pollutaion)

                                    CAUSES AND HARMFUL EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTANTS

                                        (air and water pollution)

AIR POLLUTANT SOURCES HARMFUL EFFECTS
Carbon monoxide (CO) (air and water pollution) Combustion of fuels like petrol, diesel, coal and kerosene in home, vehicles and thermal power plant (air and water pollution) ·         It interferes with oxygen carrying capacity of the blood.

·         It is poisonous to body

·         It cuts off oxygen supply leading to death. (air and water pollution)

Sulphur and Nitrogen oxides (SO2 /NO/NO2/N2O (air and water pollution) Combustion of fuels, volcanic eruptions (air and water pollution) ·         Lung congestion

·         Hamper in breathing system

·         Respiratory problems

·         Lung damage (air and water pollution)

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFSs) (air and water pollution) Releases from refrigerators, air conditioner, aerosol

(air and water pollution) sprays

·         Thinning of ozone layer

·         Causing skin cancer

·         Destruction of plants (air and water pollution)

Suspended Particulate matter (SPM)  Burning of petrol and diesel from automobile, industrial processes like steel making mining and power plants. ·         Reduces visibility

·         Causes attacks

·         Causes bronchitis

·         Damages lungs

 

PREVENTION OF AIR POLLUTION (air and water pollution):

  • By switching to CNG in motor vehicle in the place of petrol and diesel.(air and water pollution)
  • By using alternative source of energy like solar energy, biogas, hydropower and wind energy in the place of fossil fuel. (air and water pollution)
  • By using catalytic converter in vehicle to change harmful exhaust gases into CO2, N2, H2 (air and water pollution)
  • By using unleaded petrol(air and water pollution)
  • By using bicycle for short distance (air and water pollution)
  • By turning off light during day time. (air and water pollution)

                                                         WATER POLLUTION

DEFINITION OF WATER POLLUTANT:(air and water pollution) The contamination of water by the addition of unwanted and harmful substances(air and water pollution) is called water pollution. If toxic substances like chemicals, dye etc are infused in water  (air and water pollution), the water becomes polluted. The substances that pollute water are called water pollutant.

TYPES OF WATER POLLUTANT: (air and water pollution) There are three categories of pollutant

  • Physical water pollutant(air and water pollution) These include heat and oil spills. High temperature of water reduces its oxygen content (air and water pollution)
  • Biological water pollutant: (air and water pollution): These include pathogens like Viruses, Protozoa, Fungi etc. (air and water pollution)
  • Chemical water pollutant: (air and water pollution): These include organic waste like sewage, detergent, fertilizer etc. (air and water pollution).

                                 SOURCES AND HARMFUL EFFECTS OF WATER POLLUTANT

NAME OF THE SOURCES TYPES HARMFUL EFFECTS
Industrial waste (air and water pollution) Oil refineries, paper factories, textile and sugar mill including pollutants like arsenic, lead, fluorides, mercury etc (air and water pollution) ·         Causes toxicity to water.

·         Kills aquatic animals and plants

·         It gradually enters into human body leading blood poisoning, damage of nervous system, cancer. (air and water pollution)

Pesticide (air and water pollution) Used in agricultural land to protect crops like DDT, 2,4-D, boric acid, acephate. (air and water pollution) ·         Get accumulated into bodies.

·         All living organisms get poisoned. (air and water pollution)

Fertilizers (air and water pollution) NPK, Urea get washed from the field and run into water bodies. (air and water pollution) ·         Causing deterioration of water quality by ALGAL BLOOM

·         Reduces  the amount of dissolved oxygen for aquatic organisms. (air and water pollution)

Untreated sewage (air and water pollution) Directly dumped into water bodies like food waste, detergents, microorganism. (air and water pollution) ·         Causes water borne disease like cholera, typhoid, jaundice, dysentery. (air and water pollution)

 

                        PREVENTION OF WATER POLLUTION (air and water pollution)

By the following ways Water pollution can be avoided : (air and water pollution)

  • (air and water pollution) Sewage should be treated properly before discharging into water body. (air and water pollution)
  • (air and water pollution) Laws for industrial units should be strictly implemented (air and water pollution).
  • (air and water pollution) Water treatment plat should be installed in all industrial areas(air and water pollution).
  • (air and water pollution) Reduce, Reuse and Recycle mantra should be adopted(air and water pollution).
  • (air and water pollution)Used water should be used for watering plant. (air and water pollution)
  • (air and water pollution) Awareness should be created. (air and water pollution).

 

QUESTIONS RELATED TO AIR AND WATER POLLUTION:

Qs1 (air and water pollution): Name the chemicals  which are used in refrigerators and air conditioner and damage ozone layer when released in air. (air and water pollution)

Ans1(air and water pollution): Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are the chemical compounds which are used in refrigerators, air conditioners and aerosol sprayer and causes damage to ozone layer when released in air. (air and water pollution)

Qs2 (air and water pollution): CNG is an alternative fuel for vehicle, write its full form. (air and water pollution)

Ans2 (air and water pollution): CNG::Compressed Natural Gas. (air and water pollution)

Qs3(air and water pollution): State whether acid rain affects the soil and plants. (air and water pollution)

Ans3(air and water pollution):Acid rain affects both the soil and plants. It decreases the pH value of soil, thus making the soil acidic which is harmful for plants. (air and water pollution)

Qs4 (air and water pollution): Mention two sources of air pollution that are not due to human(air and water pollution)

Ans4 (air and water pollution): Volcanoes and dust storms are natural sources of air pollution(air and water pollution)

Qs5 (air and water pollution):  A gas is known to reduce the oxygen carrying capacity of blood. Mention its  name. (air and water pollution)

Ans5(air and water pollution) : Carbon monoxide (CO) reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of blood(air and water pollution).

Qs6(air and water pollution): Name any two water pollutants which are toxic for both plants and animals(air and water pollution)

Ans6(air and water pollution): Lead and arsenic are two water pollutants which are toxic for both plants and animals(air and water pollution)

Qs7(air and water pollution): We need to filter water before drinking, give reason (air and water pollution)

Ans7(air and water pollution): Water contains many diseases carrying microbes and dissolved impurities that are not visible to bare eyes. So, we need to filter water before drinking. (air and water pollution)

Qs8(air and water pollution): Groundwater also gets polluted by sewage, how? (air and water pollution)

Ans8 (air and water pollution): Untreated or insufficiently treated sewage is major source of groundwater pollution. Sewage contains food wastes, detergents, microorganisms etc which seeps into the ground to pollute groundwater. (air and water pollution)

Qs9 (air and water pollution): Combustion of fossil fuels generates a lot of air pollution. Can you suggest any two alternative sources of energy which do not cause any pollution(air and water pollution)

Ans9 (air and water pollution): Combustion of fossil fuels generates a lot of air pollution. Solar energy and wind energy are two alternative sources of energy which do not cause any pollution(air and water pollution)

Qs10(air and water pollution): Run-off water from a garden is not considered a point source of pollution. Give reason. (air and water pollution)

Ans10(air and water pollution): Run-off from a garden is not considered a point source of pollution because this water does not have a specific location for its discharge pollutants(air and water pollution)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                      

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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