Science's Blog

Science-triumphing over all subjects

WORLD DARE CORONA

During the world-wide lockdown condition  due to Corona virus infection, I am here to discuss about aspect of Corona.

What is Corona virus?

It is a group of viruses that causes respiratory problems in animals and birds. Some viruses are not so dangerous, but due to biological reasons, some family members become lethal causing even death e.g. SARS (Severe acute respiratory syndrome)

MERS (Middle-east respiratory syndrome)

COVID-19                     

WHO declared this COVID-19 infection as Pandemic.

Why named novel Corona?

DISCOVERY:  When the scientists are sequencing the genome of a particular virus, they compare the sequence with Genome database (bank of genome sequence) present in NCBI (National Council of Biological Database) EMBL (European Molecular Biology Laboratory). These are the parts of collaboration of some renowned International Institute which also includes DDBJ (DNA Databank of Japan). These resources contain many databases like sequences of many species as per known. These Institutes are hub of biological information. When the CORONA virus outbreak occurs recently, then the particular strain is sequenced. It was compared to the previously present database of CORONA virus family. That sequence is not matched with the previous databases. Hence, it’s mechanism of pathogenesis is totally unknown. That is why it’s named as Novel as there is no previous history of this virus sequence till now.

Why is it named so?

The mechanism of pathogenesis  of the virus is not known. Previously we didn’t know how the virus is transmitted from one person to another. At the beginning, in China when 15-30 patients were reported for this disease, doctors and nurse treated them as SARS patient. Later, those health workers were also affected by the CORONA virus after 7-10 days of incubation period. Then the transmission of the virus become clear. As Covid-19 is predicted from zoonotic origin (mammalian host)  their effectiveness is very dangerous to human being.

Way of infection inside Host body:

 As the outbreak of Covid-19  progresses, the mechanism of pathogenesis is being understood. It is a 20-27 kb single stranded RNA virus, which may be converting its non-protein coding gene into protein coding gene very fast. The effect in our system is first causing respiratory problems like congestion, severe dry cough, rise of body temperature.

Biological explanation:

Our  body immunity system is heavily equipped to combat any kind of infection (excluding immune-compromised people like drug addict, diabetic patient, alcoholic etc) given the infected host cell showing a particular signal maker to the immune system as a RED FLAG. This particular signals are recognised by our adaptive immune system and start to produce numerous antibodies, recruit macrophages, natural killer cells and T-CELLS to kill them. But incase of this particular case of Covid-19 virus, the signal makers are not cleared for our immune system to recognise. They are showing multiple signals from the infected cells at the same time confusing our immune-system. Hence, our immune-system is abruptly producing each and every kind of immune cells at the same time, thus increasing the level of Cytokine eventually leading to Multiple organ failure. It’s not wrong to call it a SUPER ANTIGEN.

SUBSTANCES LIFE-SPAN
Plastic 5 DAYS
Paper 4-5 DAYS
Glass 4 DAYS
Wood 4 DAYS
Steel 48 HOURS
Surgical gloves 8 HOURS
Aluminium 2-8 HOURS

 

                                                      PREVENTION

  • Suggestion for wearing Mask:

EVERYONE NEED NOT WEAR MASK

We should wear a mask 

  • If we have symptoms (dry cough, fever or breathing difficulties)
  • If we are suspected or confirmed patient
  • If we are a health worker attending to the patients with respiratory symptoms.

While wearing a mask, we must

  • Unfold the pleats of the mask; those pleates must be facing down.
  • Mask should be changed after six hours or/and whenever they become wet by our saliva.
  • Mask should be placed over the mouth and chin covering nose also and thereshould not be any gaps on both sides of the mask. In this way the mask should be adjusted to fit.
  • Not reuse disposable masks and dispose the used masks into closed bins after disinfectngthem.
  • We should not touch our face as well as mask while using it.
  • We should not leave the mask hanging from the neck.
  • After removal of mask, we must clean our hands with soap and water or use alcohol-based

 

  • Suggestion for hand-washing:

       

It is another preventive measure. We must wash our hands frequently with soap or alcohol based handwash  for long 20-30 seconds.

 

                                                   SYMPTOMS

At the beginning , symptoms of Covid-19 is very low, effects are started slowly. Sometimes affected persons are not showing any symptoms.

General symptoms:

  • Fever
  • Dry cough
  • Tireness
  • Nasal congestion
  • Runny nose
  • Respiratory problems
  • Throat soar
  • Body ache
  • Diarrhoea (very few)

 

20%  of the affected persons are having severe symptoms. Most of them are older or some time having another diseases like diabetes, kidney failure etc. They have the following problems:

  • Breathing problems
  • Pneumonia
  • Swelling in lung alveoli
  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome
  • Infection in lung
  • Problems in transportation of oxygen from lung to whole body.
  • Multi-organ failure.

 

DEATH-RATE: According to WHO, and NHS (NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE), DEATH-RATE IN WHOLE WORLD : 0.7% TO 3.8%  and 80% survived.

                                             PREVENTIVE MEASURES

We can protect ourselves by some preventive measures:

  • We must keep distance of 1mt from everyone at all the time, whether at homes or outdoors. Even speaking releases small droplets which travel a few feet in the air. Staying 6ft apart will help avoid infection.
  • We should not step out unless our life is in danger. Home is the safest place.
  • We must wash hand with soap and water after touching anything.
  • Virus grenades are lurking on door-handles, fridge-handles and surface.
  • Frequent touching of mouth or face should be avoided.
  • We must use a clean handkerchief to sneeze or cough into.
  • We should not spit pan masala or gutkha on the walls and roads.
  • We must be responsible and isolate ourselves for atleast 2 weeks even if we have a minor cough.

RULES FOR HOME QUARANTINE

  • Infected or suspected to the diseased person should be kept in a well-aerated room in single with an attached or separate toilet.
  • If the family members need to stay in the same room, they should stay at least 1mt apart.
  • Suspected person must stay away from elderly people, pregnant women, children and persons with various diseases.
  • He must wear a surgical or N-95 mask.
  • He must follow public health measures.
  • He must avoid sharing household items.
  • If symptom appears, he must immediately inform the nearest health centre.

 

                                CONCLUSION

Though we are under a big distress, but there are some good observations in our surrounding.

  • Reduction of melting of glacier in arctic region.
  • Natural animals and birds like Dolphins , Migratory birds are seen in their natural habitats.
  • Humans can spend quality time with their family.
  • Political leaders have forgotten small fighting over various issues; now they are busy in giving relief.
  • Decrease of robbery, murder, assultation etc.

Fear of death is very severe. We hope a disease-free world after Covid-19 will be waiting for these strugglers of INTERNATIONAL LOCKDOWN CONDITION.

1 comment on “WORLD DARE CORONA

  1. Avery informative article. All required information about COVID19 is summed up in one single article. Very helpful.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

error: Content is protected !!