HEALTH AND HYGIENE ESSAY
INTRODUCTION – Health is the term which can be generally understood by all but is hard to define. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as a “a state of complete physical and mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”. According to this definition, being healthy is not merely being free of diseases. Good health has the following characteristics.
*Absence of diseases in the body.
*Proper working of all internal as well as external body organs.
*Absence of any mental diseases.
* Absence of social and psychological tensions.
WHAT IS HYGIENE: The science and various practices that help in maintaining good health are called hygiene. The word hygiene has been derived from a Greek word “Hygiea” meaning Goddess of health.
Every individual likes to keep himself healthy and diseases free. The maintenance of good health, involving three aspects; nourishing and balanced diet, personal hygiene, public hygiene and sanitation.
- A) BALANCED DIET AND PERSONAL HYGIENE:
Taking care of oneself to remain healthy and free from diseases is personal hygiene. It includes:
- Eating a balanced diet: We should eat a balanced diet to remain healthy. Obtaining a balanced diet depends on one’s choice and what one can usually afford. It also includes the correct proportion of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals and roughage in one’s diet which is called balanced diet to provide necessary nutrients for growth of the body.
- Cleanliness: Personal cleanliness is most essential . it involves care of the skin, hands, hair, teeth, eyes, ears , nose etc.
- A) Care of the skin:
*Attention must be given to the cleansing and drying of the clefts and folds of the arms , legs and toes.
*Undergarments and handkerchiefs must be changed and washed daily to prevent the growth of microbes.
* Towels should not be shared with others even in same family.
*Use of deodorants in the underarm kills bacteria and removes foul smell.
- B) Care of hair:
* Hair should be kept clean and free from lice and dandruff.
* Comb and hair should not be shared with others.
- C) Care of hands and nails : Hands come in contact with various articles everyday. These articles are potential source of infection.
* The hands must be washed thoroughly with soap and clean water or hand wash before handling food or before eating and after going to the toilet.
* Nails should be properly trimmed and cleaned.
* Nails should not be bitten otherwise it may lead to infection.
- D) Care of the eyes:
* Eyes must be washed with clean water two or three times every day.
* In case of any problem, immediate treatment should be taken.
*Eyes should be protected from dust, smoke, bright light by using goggles.
* Trachoma and Conjunctivitis are two common diseases of the eye caused through contamination by hands, towels and dust. We should be aware about it.
- E) Care of teeth:
* Teeth should be cleaned every time after each meal.
*Too much intake of sweet , chocolates and candy should be avoided as it leads to teeth and gum infection.
*Brushing the teeth properly with a good toothpaste prevents tooth decay.
- F) Care of the ears:
* The wax inside the ears should be cleaned by a soft moist swab at regular intervals.
* Hard pointed objects for cleaning the ears should not be used which may damage eardrum.
* One must breath by nose only.
* While sneezing, one must hold the handkerchief in front of the mouth and nose.
3) Regular toilet habit: Regular bowel movements keep us from body wastes generated inside the body.
4) Clean food and water: Before eating raw and cooking, fruits and vegetables should be washed in clean water to make them free from germs and chemicals sprayed on plants to keep them insect free.
Water used for drinking, cooking, bathing, washing utensils should be clean.
5) Cooking with care : Food should be cooked by heating it high temperature to kill any germs present in it . Cooked food should be eaten fresh or stored in cool, fly proof place. Milk should be boiled to make it germ free for long time storage.
6) Abstaining from habit forming substance: We should avoid smoking, chewing of betel nut , gutka, and tobacco, and drinking alcohol. Intake of such habit forming substances may lead to health problems such a mouth cancer, liver damage, kidney and heart failure.
7) Physical exercise: Regular physical exercise is necessary for all people according to their age and nature of work. Regular exercise maintains heart and circulatory system and increases vital capacity of lungs. It reduces incidence of heart attack and stroke, prevents obesity, keep the joints working properly and provides feeling of well being. In old age, regular, long and gentle walks are enough.
8) Rest and sleep : Regular sleep relaxation and recreation play an important role in maintain good mental health. Duration of sleep varies from person to person. It also depends on the nature of work ,sex, physique and age .
*Persons doing mental work need less time to sleep as compared to the persons doing physical work.
*A woman needs more sleep than a man.
* An infant sleeps for approx 13 hours; a child below 10 years needs for 8 hours sleep; a young person up to 18 years of age needs 7 hours sleep and healthy adult should sleep for minimum 6 hours. Doing work continuously without feel fatigued and brings the working efficiency down. The body tissues also suffer wear and tear. So rest and relaxation helps in rejuvenation.
9) Healthy habits: Developing good habits and regularity in daily life keeps a person healthy.
*Going to bed at a fixed time at night and getting up early in the morning.
*Taking food at regular times but going to bed soon after taking dinner is not a good habit.
*Some physical exercise is a must for all age.
- B) PUBLIC SANITATION AND HYGIENE:
Activities undertaken at the government or local organizational level to maintain health of the people for controlling diseases is known as public or community hygiene.
Local or government organizations may take steps to control spreading of diseases, by creating awareness and ensuring adequate supplies of medicines. This can be done by-
*Maintaining proper cleanliness of surrounding by disposing off the sewage from colonies.
*Garbage should be thrown inside the dustbin.
*Dustbins should be covered which prevents the entry of insects and other animals from dustbin to house.
*Providing safe and germfree drinking water.
* Running various immunization and health awareness programmes wherever there is danger of spread of a disease.
*Maintaining food standards by regular inspection at food stores, meat and milk outlets.
*Providing sewage disposal by underground sewage pipes from colonies.
*Providing clinics and health centres to treat ill persons.
*Family planning centres to educate people about the importance of a small family.
*Community health education to help people know causes, spread and treatment of common diseases.
– A person stay healthy when he himself as well as his surroundings or neighbourhood maintains cleanliness and hygiene.